2016 Vol. 11, No. 1
 On the development trends of aircraft carriers…ZHU Yingfu,XIONG Zhiguo,HU Yulong(1) Review and prospect of the combat system for surface combatant ships…PAN Jingfu,DONG Xiaoming(8) Developing green ships for domination in future ship development…MA Yunyi(13) Process management of warship equipment support…ZHU Shijian(19) Overview of vital matters on high strength steel utilization in submarines…YANG Jianming,ZHANG Xinyu,LIU Chaojun(27) Review of the research on underwater explosion bubbles and the corresponding structural damage…YAO Xiongliang,LIU Wentao,ZHANG Aman,LIU Yunlong(36) The state analysis and technical development routes for the anti-explosion and shock technology of naval ships…LIU Jianhu,ZHOU Xintao,PAN Jianqiang,WANG Haikun(46) A comprehensive review on the mechanism of flow-induced noise and related prediction methods…WANG Chunxu,WU Chongjian,CHEN Lejia,QIU Changlin,XIONG Jishi(57) The research progress of the medium voltage DC integrated power system in China…FU Lijun,LIU Lufeng,WANG Gang,MA Fan,YE Zhihao,JI Feng,LIU Luhui(72) Graphene and its applications in metal corrosion resistance: a review…GONG Youning,YU Lianjiang,PAN Chunxu(80) The research development of the plasma treatment for solid waste on navy ships…LV Dongfang,YU Kailu,YUE Qiang(89) Experimental study on the control system for the free-running model test of a new concept shuttle vessel…WANG Jian,LIU Jingyang,WEI Chengzhu,LI Yinghui,YI Hong(95) Design and experiment for laboratory-scale autonomous underwater gliders…YANG Hai,LIU Yanji,ZHANG Kai(102) Analysis of the transmission characteristics of mechanical passive control systems with the inerter…LIU Yan(108) Ship maintainability design analysis technology based on digital prototyping…FANG Qiang,WANG Songshan,ZHU Hong,ZHANG Ping(114) Analytic calculation and sectional optimization of material transportation bottlenecks in large naval ships…JIN Yingcun,ZONG Yan,WANG Jiao(121) A direct calculation method for ship longitudinal launching curves…LIN Shiyao,SUN Jianglong,ZENG Jingzhou,XIE De(128) Damage detection of the warship integrated refrigerant system…XU Xinhua,LI Weiguang,XIE Junlong(135) Tenth anniversary review and bibliometrics analysis on the development of Chinese Journal of Ship Research…YI Jisheng,YU Jing,XU Jian(143)
In this paper, the major characteristics and trends in the development of aircraft carriers among foreign navies are summarized systematically. Potential trends on equipment and technology development are presented, which particularly focuses on aircraft carrier demonstration,design,and future advanced equipment. Based on the analysis,certain suggestions for aircraft carrier development in the future, includ-ing the development of key equipment and technology, fleet constructions,system engineering, human sys-tems integration, aircraft carrier culture etc.,are finally proposed.
This paper introduces the general situation of the combat system for surface combatant ships and reviews the development process of DDG combat system in China. It presents some directions of com-bat system in future,including 1)To achieve well-designed performance of platforms and payloads;2)To optimize the architecture of combat systems by applying the Total Ship Computing Environment(TSCE) compliant in Open Architecture(OA),promoting the new software integration mode;3)To advance the interface design and data integration with XML and data bus technology,including Data Distribution Ser-vice(DDS)middleware and Enterprise Service Bus(ESB);4)To develop software according to Ser-vice-Oriented Architecture(SOA)and cloud computing;5)To improve telecommunication for the imple-mentation of cooperative engagement.
Low carbon emission and environmental protection are hotspots for ship development. In this paper, the definition of "green ships" and "green fleets" is presented, the current status of green ship devel-opment in America and Europe is introduced, and the necessity of developing green ships in China is dis-cussed from the aspects of energy saving, reducing emission of pollutants, and energy security, etc. Finally, the paper presents some systematic measures for developing green ships, including strengthening the dem-onstration of development strategy, updating ship design ideas, focusing green energy exploration, develop-ing equipment of green ships, improving green construction capabilities, studying the green management concept, analyzing the new trends of worldwide green ship technology, and boosting domestic and interna-tional communication and cooperation.
Present warship equipment support is still at the stage of functional management, which hardly meets the requirement of being fast, comprehensive, sustainable, and accurate. In light of this, a proper and efficient process management for warship equipment support is of vital importance in reducing the required support resources and improving efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, with comprehensive analysis of the connotation, the characteristics, and the significance of the process management of warship equipment support, this paper classifies the warship equipment support process into three types: business process, management process, and auxiliary process, as well as three levels: navy level, department level, and posi-tion level. The principles and methods for constructing and implementing the warship equipment support process are also presented, and the timing, target, and methods for process reengineering of warship equip-ment support are studied. Particularly, the reengineering process of equipment support isillustrated with the transformation of the warship equipment support mode from the technical assistance mode to the overall technical responsibility mode.
With the increasing diving depth of submarines, high strength steel are often required, as steel is the major material in building the pressure hull of submarines. However, certain disadvantageous factors are observed in the actual operation with high strength steel, including the decrease of the fatigue strength and the plastic reserve. These factors will increase the sensitivity of the structure to manufacturing defects, the processing difficulty, the sensitivity of the deviations from the process, and the residual stress, etc. This paper reviews the special defects of high strength steel applied on the hull of submarines in accordance with the features of the high strength steel. Meanwhile, it deals with strength reserve, major hull structural style, calculated parameters, high stress local structural style, low cycle fatigue tests, manufacturing tech-nique, verification technique, and proof test etc. Finally, corresponding views are presented in combination with engineering practices.
The near-field underwater explosion can cause severe damage to warships. Specifically, studies reveal strong coupling interaction between underwater explosion bubbles and the structure that are initially damaged, which could generate further damage to the structure. The interaction between underwater explo-sion bubbles and different boundaries, including the free surface, the seabed, and the elastic structure, is the research focus in the field of fluid mechanics and fluid-structure interaction. However, urgent problems remain unsolved. This study pays much attention to the structure damage caused by underwater explosion bubbles, namely the research status of this field, including experimental, theoretical, and numerical as-pects. Particularly, the dynamic characteristics of the coupling of bubbles are studied by considering the structure elasticity, free surface effect, the compressibility of the flow field around the bubble, assuming that the underwater explosion shock wave results in structural break. Furthermore, the initial shape of the bubble and the temperature variation inside the bubble are investigated, exploring the phenomenon of "cav-ity suction" as well as the characteristics of the jet and the load law of the bubble.
The Anti-Explosion and Shock Capability (AESC) of naval ships or submarines is a primary in-dex that influences the comprehensive marine performance and is an important prerequisite of the surviv-ability, which can directly affect the performance of combat effectiveness. The AESC of naval ships or sub-marines of our country is poorer than that of the developed countries and needs immediate and overall en-hancement. The task involves resource assignment, technological development, and management measure-ment, where the technology is the key, and the technical routine is of vital significance. In this paper, some viewpoints are proposed on the technical routine of enhancing the AESC of naval ships or submarines. First, the status and the tendency of the AESC of inner and abroad naval ships and submarines are re-viewed from the aspect of technology. Next, the key problems hindering the AESC enhancement are ana-lyzed. Finally, certain proposals are presented for the technical routine of enhancing the AESC according to the works with different importance and emergency. In brief, the proposals serve as good references for the research, design, and assessment of enhancing the AESC of naval ships and submarines.
In this paper, a comprehensive review is presented on the mechanism of flow-induced noise and the related prediction methods. The review consists of four aspects: noise of submerged jets, Turbulent Boundary Layer(TBL)noise, rotor noise, and flow over cavities. The mechanism and applicability of noise prediction in the field of engineering using Lighthill acoustic analogy, Kirchhoff formulation, and the theory of vortex sound are explained in detail. Furthermore, numerical simulation methods of flow-induced noise are summarized. Specifically, Lighthill acoustic analogy presumes the noise source to be known in advance, which simplifies its engineering practice; nevertheless, it is defective to describe the exact interaction be-tween flow and sound. Meanwhile, any sound field could be calculated through Kirchhoff approach without source details, but the calculation in the near-field region directly affects the overall precision of the noise field. Finally, profound research on the interaction between vortex and potential flow indicates that the theo-ry is promising when it comes to the production and transformation of acoustic energy. In this case, free field flow noise is presented in quadruple form, while it is presented in dipole form when hard wall bound-ary exists including operating screws, which serves as a much more effective sound source.
With the constant development of modern marine technologies, the vessel energy now can be distributed through an Integrated Power System, which is known as the third vessel power revolution. In this paper, the technical features of the first and second generation integrated power system are introduced. Next, based on the present domestic technical status, the research progress of the quasi second generation medium voltage DC integrated power system in China is presented, with the corresponding difficulties and problems analyzed, including the system model, electrical-magnetic transient simulation, the connected op-erator between the gas turbine generator set and the diesel generator set, the system steady analysis, and system layered protection. Finally, the solutions are proposed, which indicates that the development are re-quired on the medium voltage DC breaker, system energy storage, system safe operation, multi-time scale, and multi object system energy regulation.
Metallic corrosion is a major global problem that could cause severe damage to national econo-my; therefore, it is imperative to develop new technologies of metal protection. Being an one-atom layer of graphite, graphene possesses unique two-dimensional structure and excellent physical and chemical prop-erties. Due to its properties of large surface area, penetration resistance, thermal stability and chemical sta-bility, graphene demonstrates great potential for future applications in metal anticorrosion coatings. In this paper, the structures and properties of graphene are introduced, with its preparation methods and character-izations discussed, and the latest development and progress on the applications of graphene and its compos-ites in metal anticorrosion presented, which mainly includes the following aspects: 1) the mechanism be-hind the increasing corrosion resistance after graphene coating, 2) applications of graphene and its compos-ite in metal anticorrosion, 3) application prospect of graphene in ship anticorrosion coating. Finally, further research expectation is briefly discussed.
With the increase in the strictness of the international ocean law as well as in the amount of voy-age of our own navy ships, it is of high necessity for navy to effectively deal with the solid waste, rendering ships with the capability to sail worldwide. In this paper, the MARPOL 73/78 on solid waste is firstly intro-duced, and the relevant strategy for US navy is then presented. Based on the comprehensive analysis, it is concluded that the plasma technology serves as the optimal approach to treat the solid waste on board due to its qualified slag and effluent. Finally, the utilization of shipboard plasma apparatus is introduced.
The free-running model test is an effective way to evaluate ship performance. In this paper, a Manipulation and Control (MC) system is designed for a new concept shuttle vessel. The MC system in-cludes two parts: an ashore control system and an onboard control system, and the two parts exchange infor-mation through a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). The actuators of the shuttle vessel are equipped with sensors to obtain the feedback data, and certain sophisticated programmable elements are incorporated as the drivers of the actuators, where the lower and upper computer software are both written in the Python programming language. The MC system is then successfully applied to the free-running model test of the new concept shuttle vessel. Experimental results indicate that the MC system is efficient in terms of the de-velopment effort, easy to be operated, and has good scalability and portability. The maneuverability of the new concept shuttle vessel is well demonstrated through the free-running model test results. Finally, the free-running experiment results tested with the MC system is compared with the actual towing tank data, which shows high consistency.
The autonomous underwater glider is a type of highly efficient autonomous underwater vehicle. Aiming at the problem that full-scale legacy gliders have difficulties in forming steady gliding movement in typical tanks, which induces obstacles in their dynamics analysis, a laboratory-scale glider is designed in this paper, where the glider design, modeling, control,and experimental research are described in detail. Firstly, the structure of the glider is described, and hydrodynamic parameters are calculated based on CFD. Secondly, the glider's dynamic governing equation is established according to the internal mass distribu-tion. Finally, the Linear Quadratic Regulator(LQR)controller and the Kalman observer are designed, and certain amount of white noise is added into the observation process. The simulation results show that the controller and observer ensure the normal operation of the glider in the presence of noise, and the glider can achieve steady gliding motion at 3 m depth range, suggesting good stability and maneuverability.
As a novel mechanical network element, the inerter instills new thoughts into the passive control design for mechanical systems. In this paper, four kinds of easy-to-apply passive control systems are devel-oped by integrating the inerter into vibration isolation and absorbing systems, in the way of series and paral-lel. The models of these systems are established next, with their transmission characteristics being simulat-ed and studied with MATLAB. It is observed that the control performance of either the isolation system or the absorbing system shows little improvement under the parallel mode. On the contrary, connecting an in-erter in series mode effectively improves the performance at the mid-low frequencies, especially at an-ti-resonant frequency, without compromising the effect at high frequencies. Also, the absorbing system can gain two anti-resonant frequencies by connecting an inerter in series mode, and the anti-resonant frequen-cies can be adjusted by changing the parameters of the system.
Aiming at the actual requirement of ship maintainability design and the shortcoming of veracity and intuition of traditional maintainability analysis techniques, a ship maintainability design analysis sys-tem is proposed in this paper based on digital prototyping through secondary development on Jack. The de-velopment is accomplished under instruction of the system structure, which includes interface layer, appli-cation layer, object layer, and technical support layer, and through the key technology of virtual prototyping modeling, virtual human modeling and simulation, parameterization maintenance operation modeling and simulation, the maintainability analysis based actual maintenance troubles is conducted. Finally, a certain maintenance task of replacing the filter element of one type of water quality after-treatment equipment in cabins is selected, where the maintainability design analysis is performed, and the feasibility and effective-ness of the system are verified.
Material transportation is a highly intricate logistics process on large naval ships, where the transportation time is affected by the transportation route, alleyway, and transporting equipment, etc. In this paper, a method of analytic calculation of the complex material transportation bottleneck, based on opera-tional researches, is proposed. The route is first divided into several sections, and the bottleneck is deter-mined after calculating and analyzing the flow and time of transportation in each section. The alleyway and the equipment on the bottleneck should be adjusted accordingly, and each section of the route could be op-timized to the equipoise principle. In brief, the proposed method can locate bottlenecks through relative simple calculation when the material is transported on several complex routes at same time, and the ratio-nality of the route & alleyway & equipment can be judged and modified to optimize the overall transporta-tion project. It is seen that the time and effort in the simulation calculation is reduced, and further modifica-tion of arrangement and equipment can be avoided.
In this paper, a direct calculation method is proposed to obtain the launching curves of ship lon-gitudinal launching. Specifically, the outer surface of ships is assumed as rigid elements, and commercial FEA software ABAQUS/AQUA is applied for the direct calculation of ship longitudinal launching curves. This method is then studied on a box barge and the outputs of launching curves are compared to those ob-tained by traditional methods based on Bonjean curves with excellent agreements. In addition, with regard to a barge with relatively complex geometry, the proposed method is shown to be insensitive to mesh sizes. All these features demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the direct calculation method proposed in this paper. Finally, the method is applied to a Wigley type and a tanker to verify the feasibility and the suitabili-ty, which indicates that the direct calculation method has a great potential to solve engineering problems on different ship launching.
Warship integrated refrigerant systems may provide security for the cooling of electronic equip-ment, overcoming the problems of low reliability, short lifetime, and high costs etc. It may also reduce the resource consumption, optimize the system design, and realize the comprehensive utilization of cooling re-sources. Therefore, damage detection and management of this element is of vital importance to the warship damage control system. Based on the introduction and analysis of integration of warship refrigerant systems and warship damage control systems, this paper presents the damage detection and diagnosis of sensors of a refrigerant system by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which is further validated on the simula-tion platform of a water system. Particularly, the PCA model is established based on the normal operation data measured by pressure sensors of the water system. This model explains the systematic variance above 95%, and the confidence limit is 1.639 4. When one pressure sensor is damaged (i.e. fault), the Q-statistic of the operation data exceeds the confidence limit, indicating that some pressure sensor could be in fault. The Q-contribution shows that the measurement from the faulty sensor has the highest contribution from 45% to 75%. In addition, the faulty sensor can be isolated based on the Q-contribution plot. This paper fur-ther proposes the ways for damage detection and diagnosis of the pipe network of the warship integrated with refrigerant systems by considering the case under normal time and wartime together.
The influence of Chinese Journal of Ship Research (CJSR) has been constantly increasing ever since it was founded ten years ago, and now the journal ranks as one of the top quality periodicals in the shipbuilding industry. In order to further promote the development of CJSR, the history and practical experi-ence of the journal are first introduced in this paper, followed by a bibliometric analysis of the growth of im-pact factors and cited frequencies of the journal, the domain distribution of papers and features of high-ly-cited papers, and the core authors and the institutional distribution of contributions. The results show that CJSR has dozens of representative core authors with high impact, incorporated with features of military engineering background, overall design and integration, combination of theory and engineering. It is duly expected the journal should involve more core authors and contribution institutions in the future.