Volume 15 Issue 6
Dec.  2020
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ZHANG W W, XU R W. Review of research on sail hydrodynamic noise and control technology [J]. Chinese Journal of Ship Research, 2020, 15(6): 72–89 doi:  10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.01816
Citation: ZHANG W W, XU R W. Review of research on sail hydrodynamic noise and control technology [J]. Chinese Journal of Ship Research, 2020, 15(6): 72–89 doi:  10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.01816

Review of research on sail hydrodynamic noise and control technology

doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.01816
  • Received Date: 2019-10-31
  • Accepted Date: 2020-11-10
  • Rev Recd Date: 2020-06-11
  • Available Online: 2020-11-10
  • Publish Date: 2020-12-30
  • The sail is one of the most prominent contributors to the hydrodynamic noise of a submarine. This study seeks to analyze the mechanisms and characteristics of sail hydrodynamic noise, and summarize the characteristics and development trends of its control technology. First, the basic mechanisms and composition of sail hydrodynamic noise are summarized, as well as the research status of the direct radiation noise, secondary noise and cavity noise induced by flow-excitation of sails' opening. The research progress of sail noise control technology is then summarized, including fillet design, "thin foil" sail shape design, cavity noise control, etc. Finally, several aspects of further research on the control of sail hydrodynamic noise are proposed. This paper illustrates the basic mechanisms in the progress of sail hydrodynamic noise control technology. It can provide important reference value for researchers engaging in hydrodynamic noise and ship design.
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Review of research on sail hydrodynamic noise and control technology

doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.01816

Abstract: The sail is one of the most prominent contributors to the hydrodynamic noise of a submarine. This study seeks to analyze the mechanisms and characteristics of sail hydrodynamic noise, and summarize the characteristics and development trends of its control technology. First, the basic mechanisms and composition of sail hydrodynamic noise are summarized, as well as the research status of the direct radiation noise, secondary noise and cavity noise induced by flow-excitation of sails' opening. The research progress of sail noise control technology is then summarized, including fillet design, "thin foil" sail shape design, cavity noise control, etc. Finally, several aspects of further research on the control of sail hydrodynamic noise are proposed. This paper illustrates the basic mechanisms in the progress of sail hydrodynamic noise control technology. It can provide important reference value for researchers engaging in hydrodynamic noise and ship design.

ZHANG W W, XU R W. Review of research on sail hydrodynamic noise and control technology [J]. Chinese Journal of Ship Research, 2020, 15(6): 72–89 doi:  10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.01816
Citation: ZHANG W W, XU R W. Review of research on sail hydrodynamic noise and control technology [J]. Chinese Journal of Ship Research, 2020, 15(6): 72–89 doi:  10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.01816
    • 指挥室围壳是为满足潜艇在水面状态时的指挥、观通等需求而设置的突体结构,内部通常围封耐压指挥室和通信天线、潜望镜、通气管等多种升降桅杆,一般情况下,围壳也是潜艇最大的附体结构。

      以往对围壳的设计主要考虑的是其对潜艇阻力、操纵性等水动力性能的影响,近年来,随着潜艇航速的提高,围壳部位的水动力噪声问题逐渐凸显,指挥室围壳等水下翼型结构的水动力噪声总级通常与流速的5~7次方成正比,在高流速时,甚至是以流速的10次方的规律增长[1]。文献[2]和文献[3]分别对潜艇的水动力噪声进行了实测数据分析和数值计算,结果均表明潜艇的自噪声分布在指挥室围壳和潜艇尾部存在2个明显的“驼峰”。针对围壳部位突出的水动力噪声问题,美国致力于潜艇水动力、结构与噪声综合研究的部门−水面战研究中心卡德洛克分部曾专门成立先进的围壳研发计划(advanced sail project),从水动力、水动力噪声、复合材料技术、结构设计等多方面对先进的围壳开展了深入研究深入研究[4-6]。可见,指挥室围壳是潜艇辐射噪声的重点部位。


    • 围壳部位具有非常复杂的流动特征。在围壳根部,围壳与艇体表面构成流动角区,致使来流边界层容易在该区域产生复杂的三维分离流动,形成由围壳前缘向后缘流动的“马蹄涡”;在围壳尾部,受逆压梯度和黏性阻力的影响,容易发生边界层分离和涡脱落;在围壳顶部,由于翼型的端面效应,当来流与围壳存在一定攻角时(转向航行),容易在围壳顶部产生梢涡;同时,围壳上的各类开孔还容易发生流激空腔振荡。这些流动会在围壳表面产生湍流脉动压力,表面湍流脉动压力一方面会直接产生噪声,另一方面又会激励围壳结构振动并辐射噪声。

      围壳表面多种不稳定流也使得围壳水动力噪声具有多种复杂的机理。Liu 等[7]通过大涡模拟和水洞试验对围壳水动力噪声机理进行了研究,指出围壳在不同类型不稳定流激励下产生的噪声特性不同,如马蹄涡主要贡献了500 Hz以下的低频噪声,尾涡主要产生线谱噪声(595 Hz),而边界层分离产生的噪声则具有宽频特性。Dowling[8]指出水动力噪声应重点关注其低频特性,因为低频噪声容易与结构振动产生明显的耦合,成为水动力噪声的主要贡献部分。根据噪声的频率特性和产生机理,本文将围壳水动力噪声归纳为4类:1)围壳表面湍流脉动压力的直接辐射噪声;2)湍流脉动压力激励围壳结构产生振动进而产生的辐射噪声,也称为二次辐射噪声;3)围壳开口部位在水流作用下产生的流激空腔噪声;4)当围壳尾部涡脱落频率与围壳固有频率相近时,产生的涡激共振噪声。围壳水动力噪声机理如图1所示。其中前2类噪声源主要构成围壳水动力噪声的低频宽带分量,第3类噪声主要表现为低频线谱分量,第4类噪声通常也表现为线谱噪声,但在未发生共振时线谱幅值较小。由于第4类噪声本质上也可以分解为第1类和第2类噪声,因而,本文主要对前3类噪声研究进行回顾和总结,并概述水动力噪声在试验测量方面的研究进展。

      Figure 1.  The mechanism of the hydrodynamic noise of sail

    • 围壳由于突出于潜艇艇体表面,破坏了艇体表面的均匀流场,因此在水下航行时,围壳表面会形成以马蹄涡、片状湍流边界层、梢涡和尾流涡为代表的复杂湍流绕流,湍流中的速度、压力和温度等物理参数将发生近乎无规则的脉动,这些复杂的湍流脉动一方面会使流体介质产生密度波动,即声波,另一方面,入射到壁面的湍流脉动又会因壁面的存在而发生动量损失,引起动能向声能的转换,在壁面形成偶极子声源并辐射噪声,这种由绕流中的湍流脉动直接辐射的噪声称为直接辐射噪声。由于湍流脉动具有随机性,因而直接辐射噪声通常表现为宽带噪声。





      在围壳绕流中,根据不同部位的几何特征,有不同的大尺度涡,如图2所示。围壳根部以“马蹄涡”为主要特征;在围壳顶部,湍流脉动压力主要受梢涡尺度的影响;围壳尾部一般会伴有较强的涡脱落,形成尾流涡,周期性的涡脱落会对围壳尾部产生较强的附加脉动压力;而在围壳中部,边界层主要经历由层流到转捩再到完全发展为湍流边界层的过程,该区域的湍流脉动压力主要由片状边界层决定。其中,围壳根部的“马蹄涡”是围壳水动力噪声的突出噪声源和振动激励源[20],它的形成实际上是由于围壳等突体结构对来流的阻滞作用,在其上游形成逆压梯度进而引起艇体表面边界层发生三维流动分离,并在主、附体交接的角区沿突体表面卷绕,形成所谓的马蹄涡[21],马蹄涡在角区附近发生卷并、集中的过程中伴随着强烈的振荡现象,并在表面产生较强的脉动压力和剪切力[22] 。围壳根部的马蹄涡强度与来流攻角密切相关,Jiménez等[23]发现当攻角小于17°时,围壳马蹄涡的强度会随攻角的增大而增大,而当攻角大于17°时,马蹄涡强度的变化趋势则相反。由于流场中的大涡结构和尺度与流动边界条件密切相关,因而可以通过围壳外形优化来减小或消除马蹄涡、尾涡等大尺度涡强度,达到降低围壳水动力噪声的目的,后文将对相关研究进一步总结。

      Figure 2.  Vortex flow on the surface of sail

    • 围壳表面的湍流脉动压力一方面会直接产生声辐射,另一方面还会激励围壳结构振动并产生辐射噪声,即二次辐射噪声。由于指挥室围壳为透水结构,不需要承受静水压力,因而其结构整体刚度通常小于艇体结构刚度,受流体激励而产生的振动响应较大,所以由围壳结构受激振动产生的二次辐射噪声通常是围壳水动力噪声中不可忽视的噪声分量,甚至是水动力噪声的主要分量[24]




    • 围壳并非为全封闭的短翼形结构,其顶部存在为升降桅杆而设置的开孔,围壳壁上通常设有通气孔和流水孔,这些开孔与围壳内部腔体相连形成开口腔,当围壳表面湍流边界层流经这些开孔时,会在孔口形成剪切层振荡,引起流激空腔噪声。流激空腔噪声是围壳水动力噪声低频线谱分量的主要噪声源。


      Figure 3.  Mechanisms of flow-induced cavity noise[29]


      流激空腔噪声的特点在于,即使在较低流速下,也会有腔口剪切层自持振荡发生,并辐射线谱噪声;而当自持振荡与空腔共振频率接近时,线谱噪声幅值会骤然增加。Elder[37]最早对空腔自持振荡辐射的线谱噪声和空腔共振时辐射的线谱噪声进行了区分,并分别称之为“剪切纯音”(shear tone)和“空腔纯音”(cavity tone),其中剪切纯音在很宽的流速范围下都会发生,而空腔纯音只在有限的几个流速范围内发生。大量研究表明,空腔共振模态主要发生在最大尺度方向。Sarohia等[38]根据空腔长度L与深度D的比值将空腔划分为深腔和浅腔,当L/D>1时称为浅腔,L/D<1时称为深腔,浅腔通常在流向的声模态发生空腔共振,而深腔常在深度方向的声模态发生共振。East[39]和Heller等[32]通过试验研究,分别建立了深腔和浅腔的空腔共振频率预报经验公式。对于水中空腔流动,马赫数通常很小,而声波波长较长,腔口发生的自持振荡频率很难接近空腔声模态频率(除非空腔尺度很大而开口尺度很小)。实际上,水中空腔流动仍然存在共振线谱噪声,这是因为在水中,流体介质与空腔壁存在较强的弹性耦合,会降低空腔声模态频率。袁国清[29]和高岩等[40]对此类水中弹性腔的耦合共振问题进行了研究,证明弹性壁会降低空腔声模态频率,从而更容易发生流激空腔共振。


    • 对水动力噪声的计算和测量是揭示水动力噪声机理和特性以及对其进行有效治理的2个关键环节。在水动力噪声计算方面,李环等[52]和王春旭等[53]进行了较为详细的综述,限于文章篇幅,本文不再赘述。针对水动力噪声测量的实验研究,目前主要有水筒测量、拖曳模测量、大尺度自航模测量和浮体测量等试验方法。

      水筒测量是一种比较成熟且常用的水动力噪声测试方法,它需要保持测试模型在水筒内不动,利用水筒内的循环水流与测试模型形成相对运动而进行水动力噪声测量。这种测量方法的主要优势是可以对流速、压力等水力参数精确调整,同时方便利用激光多普勒测速(LDV)、粒子成像测速(PIV)等技术对流场进行观察。在用水筒测量水动力噪声时,水听器可置于水筒内用于测量模型的水动力噪声。Li 等[54]和黄桥高等[55]直接将水听器置于水筒内,分别测量了水面船和回转体水下航行器缩比模型的水动力噪声,并较为准确地预报了实尺度下的水动力噪声。更为常用的水筒测量方法是将水听器置于与水筒工作段相连接的外部水箱中,这要求与外部水箱连接的水筒壁具有良好的透声性。Abshagen等[56]通过外置水听器的水筒测量方法,对平板的流噪声进行了测量,测量结果与拖曳模的测量结果相近。用水筒测量水动力噪声往往也存在诸多限制,首先是受限于水筒工作段尺寸,无法对较大尺度模型开展水动力噪声试验,而更为重要的限制因素是狭小密闭的水筒内往往存在强烈的混响,水筒内的背景噪声甚至会淹没所要测量的水动力噪声。减少这些限制影响的一个有效措施就是增大水筒的工作段尺寸。世界各大先进空泡水筒(循环水槽)也确实是在朝这个方向发展,如中国船舶科学研究中心的循环水槽工作段截面尺寸达到了2.2 m$ \times $2.0 m[57],这也是国内目前最大的循环水槽。德国汉堡水池大型空泡水筒工作段的截面尺寸为2.8 m$ \times $1.6 m,美国海军水面战研究中心的William B Morgan大型空泡水筒的工作段截面尺寸更是达到了3.05 m$ \times $3.05 m[58]。当水筒的背景噪声过于强烈时,一般通过测量模型的表面脉动压力来对水动力噪声进行评估。袁国清[29]采用这种测量表面脉动压力的方法在重力水筒内对由空腔绕流引起的水动力噪声进行了实验研究。

      拖曳模测量是通过低噪声拖曳装置带动试验模型在水池内以一定的速度运动,进而对模型产生的水动力噪声进行测量,相较于水筒测量方法,拖曳模测量对模型尺度的限制以及受背景噪声的影响都要小得多。拖曳模测量水动力噪声通常是在专门的拖曳水池中进行。Gao等[59]在拖曳水池中通过固定位置的单点水听器,对水面船模型进行了水动力噪声测量,并利用短时傅里叶变换将测量的时域噪声信号映射至时间−频率域,有效识别出了水动力噪声分量。Haimov等[60]在拖曳水池中将由4个水听器组成的圆周阵列与螺旋桨一同固定到拖曳架上,使水听器阵与螺旋桨保持相对位置固定,进而对螺旋桨噪声进行了测量。戴绍仕等[61]利用脉动压力传感器对陷落式空腔内部的脉动压力进行测量,在拖曳水池内对不同功角下的流激空腔振荡特性进行了实验研究。当对水动力噪声试验环境有特殊要求时,拖曳模测量水动力噪声也可以在其他类型的水域中进行。Abshagen等[62]在研究湍流边界层脉动压力和水动力噪声的关系时,因需要尽可能降低海洋背景噪声以及测量装置噪声的影响,故选择在1 000 m 水深的挪威松恩海峡开展拖曳模水动力噪声试验,并将拖曳模置于100 ~150 m水深区间,通过线型等距分布的水听器阵列对拖曳模水动力噪声进行了测量。

      浮体测量是Haddle等[63]于上世纪60年代最早提出一种水动力噪声测量方法。它是将试验浮体模型从深水湖底自由释放,完全利用其自身的浮力,而无需利用任何动力装置推动浮体冲向水面,进而测量浮体模型在上浮过程中产生的水动力噪声。由于几乎完全消除了机械噪声的影响,可以显著提高水动力噪声测量的准确性,且浮体模型通常可以达到较高的上浮速度,因此浮体测量十分有利于中、高速水下航行体的水动力噪声测量。美国和俄罗斯等国专门建设了浮体测量试验基地,如俄罗斯克雷洛夫中央船舶研究所早在上世纪60年代就设计建造了深水浮体测量基地,专门用于测量水下航行器的水动力噪声,其浮体最高上浮速度可超过22 m/s[64];美国在位于爱达荷州的本德奥瑞湖潜艇水声试验区也专门规划了浮力艇试验区,通过使大比例实艇自浮模型从300 m水深的湖底自由加速上浮升至湖面,专门用于潜艇艇首和指挥室围壳部位的水动力噪声测量试验[65]。国内针对浮体测量水动力噪声的试验研究相对较少。陈灿[66]采用了浮体测量方法相似的原理,通过测量球形体在湖上无动力下沉过程中的水动力噪声,对球形体的水动力噪声特性进行了实验研究。张翰钦等[67]则将潜艇指挥室围壳缩比模型缚于浮力回转体上进行自由上浮试验,通过测量表面脉动压力,对开孔围壳的流激振荡现象进行了研究。目前,国内还没有建成专门的浮体测量试验平台,但鉴于其在水动力噪声试验方面的显著优势,建成专门的浮体测量试验平台对进一步探明水动力噪声机理、降低水下航行器在中、高航速下的水动力噪声等具有积极的意义。

    • 围壳水动力噪声控制主要从3个方面开展:降低流体激励力、降低围壳结构受激振动响应、降低声辐射效率。在降低流体激励力方面,主要是通过开展围壳的水动力外形优化来降低马蹄涡、梢涡和尾涡等大尺度涡强度,如填角设计、线型优化、开孔设计等;在降低围壳结构受激振动方面,主要涉及开展围壳结构优化,提高整体或局部结构强度,如加强围壳结构布置和尺寸的优化设计;在降低声辐射效率方面,主要涉及材料的使用,如在围壳表面涂覆柔性阻尼材料、采用复合材料建造围壳等。

    • 填角是围壳前缘与艇体过渡连接的一段具有一定弧度的结构,主要用于减弱或消除围壳根部由前缘向下游发展的马蹄涡,其外形如图4所示。


      在围壳马蹄涡控制研究中,Gorski[71]最先对填角的涡控效果进行了研究,发现围壳填角能有效降低围壳前缘的逆压梯度,进而消除马蹄涡的产生;Seil等[72]探究了围壳与主艇体交接部位结合外形对表面涡流和阻力的影响,结果表明在围壳首部加装填角能减弱马蹄涡强度,同时也能降低阻力;Toxopeus等[73]通过数值模拟研究了抑制围壳根部马蹄涡的最佳填角尺度,认为填角在长度等于围壳翼型剖面半弦长、高度为弦长的15%时效果最佳;Lin等[74]和张楠等[75]通过大涡模拟的数值计算方法,分别对围壳加装填角后的辐射噪声和表面脉动压力进行了计算,结果表明填角可使围壳的辐射噪声和表面脉动压力分别降低2~5 dB和~26.7 dB。

      Figure 4.  The sail fillet on the Virginia-class SSN[76]


    • 为减小航行阻力,现代潜艇围壳普遍采用流线型的翼型剖面设计,但关于围壳翼型剖面厚度(即围壳宽度)与水动力噪声的关系鲜有公开的文献。而在气动噪声领域中,翼型结构厚度与噪声的关系已经有一定的研究结论,即在一定范围内,机翼的相对厚度(翼型最大厚度与弦长之比)越小,产生的气动噪声越小。刘大伟等[77]对NACA0008,NACA0010和NACA0012这3种不同厚度的对称翼型进行了气动噪声仿真与试验,结果表明,随着机翼厚度的增加,气动噪声也随之增加。卓文涛等[78]通过改变NACA0012对称翼型的相对厚度和最大厚度位置对翼型进行了优化,结果表明在一定相对厚度范围内,机翼厚度越小,产生的气动噪声越小。



      Figure 5.  Top views of sails of three U.S. SSN[81]

      Figure 6.  Detachable service boards on the sail of Virginia-class SSN[82]

    • 指挥室围壳线型是决定围壳表面脉动压力和尾部旋涡脱落的主要因素,对前面所提到的第1,2,4类噪声均有直接影响。现代潜艇指挥室围壳普遍采用水平剖面为对称翼型的设计,但在沿垂向高度的变化上,则差异较大。美国“弗吉尼亚”、“海狼”级等核潜艇的围壳采用的是直壁式围壳线型,这类围壳的水平剖面几乎不沿高度变化;英国“机敏级”、德国212型、澳大利亚“柯林斯”级等潜艇的围壳则是斜壁式,其水平剖面线型的弦长和半宽随高度的增加而减小,通常这样的线型设计是为了使围壳根部与潜艇上层建筑能较为平滑地过渡连接;还有一类是以俄罗斯“北风之神”为代表的潜艇围壳,这类围壳采用的是倒斜壁式,即水平剖面弦长随高度的增加而增大。


      在围壳与艇体的交接形式方面,主要有2种设计形式:一种是围壳前部填角,相关研究进展已经在2.1节进行描述;另一种是围壳与艇体光滑过渡连接。Seil等[72]曾提出一种与潜艇艇体光滑过度连接的“一体型”围壳,这种围壳的导边和随边都为倾斜状,相对于传统直翼型围壳,“一体型”围壳与艇体形成光滑过度,抑制了结合部位的马蹄涡,同时也增大了围壳体积,比较适合容纳更大的设备以满足现代潜艇的特殊战术需求[88]。英国“机敏”级核潜艇和德国212型潜艇围壳很好地体现了这种围壳设计;王开春等[89]对具有倾斜随边围壳的水动力噪声进行了数值研究,计算结果表明,倾斜随边布局的围壳可以抑制尾流的摆动,进而降低尾流噪声,良好设计的随边形状可以降低总级达5 dB的水动力噪声。此外,一种“座舱盖”形围壳曾吸引了广泛关注,这种围壳因外形酷似飞行员的座舱盖而得名,美国水面武器研究中心的卡德洛克分部最先对该类型围壳进行了研究,该团队的研究报告指出,这种类型围壳可以有效抑制围壳马蹄涡、梢涡和尾涡[4-6];Lin等[74]和张楠等[75]分别对座舱盖围壳的水动力噪声性能进行了数值模拟研究,结果表明,“座舱盖”围壳可降低总声级达9 dB和6 dB。但值得注意的是,虽然“座舱盖”围壳有较为可观的低噪声,但其研发至今已有20余年,仍未见实际应用。

    • 围壳开口部位由于在流体的激励下容易发生腔口剪切层自持振荡,并在一定条件下发生空腔共振,辐射强烈的线谱噪声,因而围壳往往成为水动力噪声的突出噪声源。对于围壳开口的空腔噪声控制,最直接的方法是对这些开口进行封闭,这在实际工程中已有所应用,典型的如英国“机敏”级核潜艇和美国“弗吉尼亚”级核潜艇均在其围壳顶部开口应用了启闭装置,当桅杆需要升起时,可将启闭装置打开,而在水下航行不需要升起桅杆时,启闭装置可以对开口进行封闭,如图7所示。

      Figure 7.  On-and-off devices of top openings on sails

      并非所有的围壳部位开口都适用启闭装置,出于安全性等方面的考虑,如流水孔、通气孔等必须要保持常开状态,因而对于这些开孔的流激空腔噪声需要采用其他措施进行控制。根据是否有外界能量的输入,空腔噪声控制可以分为主动控制和被动控制2种。Cattafesta等[92]曾对空腔噪声的主动控制进行过详细的综述,大抵将主动控制方法分为了4类:一是在空腔前缘下方注入一定流量的流体(也称次级流)[93-95],通过外部射流减小腔口的对流速度梯度,减弱剪切层振荡的发展;二是在空腔导边布置振荡板[96-97],振荡板以一定的频率振动而影响腔口的涡脱落,进而减缓腔口的剪切层振荡;三是在空腔后壁面上布置激振器[98],干扰剪切层拍击腔口随边产生压力脉动,破坏腔口剪切层自持振荡的反馈环;四是在腔口导边布置零质量射流器[99-100],这类控制方式与第1类方式相近,但没有外部流体输入。虽然这些主动控制方法往往能降低20 dB以上的空腔线谱噪声,但主动控制机构复杂,技术成熟度较低,会引入控制装置的自噪声,且这类主动控制方法通常只在较高马赫数下能实现较好的空腔噪声抑制效果,对于水中流速通常为极低马赫数(Ma<0.01)的情况,还未见有空腔噪声主动控制方面的文献,因此,对于围壳开口等水中空腔的噪声控制,被动控制方法仍不失为一种可靠、有效的途径。



    • 指挥室围壳根部由于角区流动形成的马蹄涡除了会在围壳部位引起较为强烈的直接声和二次声外,还会使围壳尾流成为以湍流脉动、黏性效应和漩涡运动为特征的复杂流场区域,导致螺旋桨盘面伴流严重不均匀,引起螺旋桨噪声增大。为减弱围壳部位马蹄涡的发展,降低潜艇水动力噪声,除上述所提到的围壳填角外,自20世纪60年代以来,相关学者还开展了一系列应用于围壳等航行器突体部位的流动控制装置研究。


    • 围壳结构优化设计的目的是在总体重量的约束下,使围壳在绕流激励下的振动响应最小。通过前文的分析可知,围壳所受到的绕流激励主要包括:表面湍流脉动压力、开口剪切层振荡和尾部涡脱落激励。其中,表面湍流脉动压力是以低频为主的连续谱激励,而开口剪切层振荡和尾部涡脱落则主要为低频线谱激励,因而在围壳加强结构设计中,要尽可能提高围壳的整体刚度和“关键”局部刚度,以提高围壳模态频率,降低低频振动响应。这里“关键”局部主要为开口/开孔周围以及围壳尾部,因为这些部位的流体激励主要为低频线谱激励,要避免发生水弹性共振。


    • 水声材料技术在潜艇水动力噪声治理中的应用主要可以分为3类:去耦覆盖层技术、复合材料技术以及水声超材料技术。其中,水声超材料是一类新型的、且目前非常热门的水声材料技术,在水动力噪声控制领域具有非常好的应用前景。水声超材料自2000年Liu等[130]提出局域共振声子晶体的概念以来,已经取得了长足的进展,但距离潜艇水动力噪声治理的实际应用还有较大差距。西北工业大学的张燕妮等[131]对水声超材料研究进展进行了详尽的归纳与总结,由于篇幅有限,本文不再赘述,将主要聚焦于去耦覆盖层和复合材料在水动力噪声治理方面的研究进展进行回顾和总结。

      去耦覆盖层是敷设于水下结构外表面的一层柔性阻尼材料,主要通过特性阻抗失配以及阻尼特性,隔离水下结构表面振动激起的弹性压力波向水中传递,并抑制结构振动,进而降低水下结构辐射噪声[132]。去耦覆盖层技术已较为成熟,已被应用于潜艇机械噪声治理中[133]。根据其主要降噪机理,若在潜艇指挥室围壳表面敷设去耦覆盖层,理论上也可有效抑制围壳二次辐射噪声和围壳开口流激空腔噪声。俞孟萨[134]较早就提出过这种设想,但在实际应用中仍存在几个问题:其一,去耦覆盖层对低频噪声的抑制效果不佳,甚至还会增大低频噪声,而水动力噪声通常在低频段具有主要能量。Wang等[135]以敷设去耦覆盖层的加筋板为对象,从理论和实验这2个方面对去耦覆盖层的这一声学特性进行了较为详细的描述;Huang等[136]对去耦覆盖层的内腔结构进行了一系列优化,指出特殊构型的对称内腔可大幅改善去耦覆盖层的整体降噪效果,但对低频噪声(<250 Hz)甚至还有轻微的增加,可见去耦覆盖层的低频降噪问题仍有待解决。其二,高静水压会显著降低去耦合层的隔振降噪效果,这是因为以橡胶、聚氨酯等高分子聚合物为主要材料的去耦合层在高静水压下容易变“硬”,使阻抗失配效果降低,且高静水压容易使去耦合层的内腔结构产生较大形变,进而降低吸声效果[137]。其三,对于表面敷设柔性去耦合层的围壳壳板而言,在低频时壳板−去耦合层−水可以等效为质量−弹簧−质量,而在其共振频率附近反而会放大壳板的振动和噪声[138-139],加厚去耦合层或采用多层结构可以有效降低该共振频率[140-141],但这会使去耦合层变得厚重,进而破坏围壳的水动力外形。


    • 从水动力噪声研究的发展进程来看,其大部分理论和工具都移植自气动噪声研究,相对于气动噪声,水动力噪声研究还较为薄弱,这主要体现在水动力噪声需要考虑流体与结构强耦合的作用,而这一点在气动噪声中通常是不考虑的。围壳作为潜艇的噪声突出部位,其涉及到除射流噪声、旋转噪声和空泡噪声以外的大部分水动力噪声问题,因而使得围壳水动力噪声的机理和特性变得非常复杂,从本文对围壳水动力噪声机理的分析也可以看出,很多相关的噪声机理仍未完全揭示清楚,这也就导致了围壳水动力噪声治理的困难。笔者认为,要进一步降低围壳部位的水动力噪声,还需要针对以下几方面做进一步研究:

      1) 开口空腔的水弹性共振机理和声辐射特性研究。文献[29,40]的研究表明,结构弹性对空腔共振和声辐射具有显著影响,但其影响规律尚不明确,开展空腔的水弹性共振机理和辐射特性研究有助于更有效地抑制围壳的线谱噪声。

      2) “薄翼”形围壳设计和噪声特性研究。“薄翼”形围壳设计的出发点是在满足围壳具有足够的内部空间以容纳各类桅杆和其他设备的前提下,使围壳的相对宽度尽可能小,从水动力的角度不难理解,围壳宽度越小,其表面绕流产生的马蹄涡和尾涡强度越小,但关于围壳相对宽度对水动力噪声的影响还鲜有研究。

      3) 围壳加强结构布置对声辐射的影响研究。围壳结构刚度是围壳二次辐射噪声的一个重要影响因素,而加强结构布置与围壳结构刚度密切相关,研究围壳加强结构布置对声辐射的影响将有助于从结构动力学的角度降低围壳水动力噪声。

      4) 开口流激空腔噪声控制装置设计。现有的主动或被动空腔噪声控制装置几乎都有一定的局限性,或引入新的噪声源,或增大航行阻力,或减小开口面积等,研究一种能有效抑制空腔噪声,且不会影响其他性能的控制装置仍是亟待解决的一个问题。

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