赵文涛, 靖龙悦, 孙朝阳, 等. 基于改进快速行进平方法的无人帆船动态避碰方法[J]. 中国舰船研究, 2024, 19(X): 1–14. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.03241
引用本文: 赵文涛, 靖龙悦, 孙朝阳, 等. 基于改进快速行进平方法的无人帆船动态避碰方法[J]. 中国舰船研究, 2024, 19(X): 1–14. doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.03241
ZHAO W T, JING L Y, SUN Z Y, et al. Dynamic collision avoidance method of unmanned sailboat based on improved fast-marching square method[J]. Chinese Journal of Ship Research, 2024, 19(X): 1–14 (in Chinese). doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.03241
Citation: ZHAO W T, JING L Y, SUN Z Y, et al. Dynamic collision avoidance method of unmanned sailboat based on improved fast-marching square method[J]. Chinese Journal of Ship Research, 2024, 19(X): 1–14 (in Chinese). doi: 10.19693/j.issn.1673-3185.03241

基于改进快速行进平方法的无人帆船动态避碰方法

Dynamic collision avoidance method of unmanned sailboat based on improved fast-marching square method

  • 摘要:
    目的 为解决帆船在开阔水域的多船避碰问题,对基于改进快速行进平方(IFMS)法的局部动态避碰算法进行研究。
    方法 考虑到帆船的速度不可控,将其避碰行为转化为航向控制问题,并以总势场梯度下降方向为期望避碰航向。当帆船没有碰撞危险或顺风航行时,仅通过构造时间势场来避开所有静止不规则障碍并到达目标点。而当帆船存在航行约束时,根据国际海上避碰规则(COLREGS),为特定会遇场景设计高斯似然函数用以动态地构建障碍势场。同时为考虑帆船航行死区,引入局部风势场,实现帆船动态避碰与“之”字形航行策略相结合的应用需求。
    结果 结果显示,所提算法可以使无人帆船在遵守避碰规则和避免航行死区的同时,成功地在各种会遇场景下实现与其他帆船、受限机动船的避碰操作,相比原始快速行进平方(FMS)算法,逆风航行时间大大缩短,避碰航迹也更加合理、安全。
    结论 所提方法符合帆船运动特性及避碰规则,在复杂环境下具有较高的安全性和鲁棒性,对无人帆船自主避障技术发展具有一定的科学价值。

     

    Abstract:
    Objective A local dynamic collision avoidance algorithm based on an improved fast-marching square method (IFMS) is proposed to solve the multi-vessel collision avoidance problem of sailboats in open water.
    Methods Considering the uncontrollable speed of a sailboat, its collision avoidance behavior is transformed into a heading control problem, with the direction of the total potential field gradient decreasing as the desired collision avoidance heading. When sailing without risk of collision or downwind, a temporal potential field is constructed to avoid all stationary irregular obstacles and reach the target point. When the sailboat has sailing constraints, Gaussian likelihood functions are designed for specific encounter scenarios to dynamically construct obstacle potential fields according to the convention on the international regulations for preventing collisions at sea (COLREGS), while the local wind potential field is introduced to consider the dead zone of a sailboat and realize the application requirements of combining dynamic collision avoidance with a zigzag sailing strategy.
    Results The results show that the proposed algorithm can enable an unmanned sailboat to successfully achieve collision avoidance operations with other sailboats and restricted motor vessels in various encounter scenarios, while complying with collision avoidance rules and avoiding navigational dead zones. Compared with the original fast-marching square algorithm (FMS), the upwind sailing time is significantly reduced and the planned collision avoidance trajectory is safer and more reasonable.
    Conclusion The proposed method complies with the characteristics of sailboat motion and collision avoidance rules, has high safety and robustness in complex environments, and possesses scientific value regarding the development of autonomous obstacle avoidance technology for unmanned sailboats.

     

/

返回文章
返回